The Global Security News: 1. US Security from Michael_Novakhov (88 sites): Eurasia Review: Are The Insurgencies Truly Over? The End Of The Syrian Civil War – Analysis

By Thomas R. McCabe*

While the so-called Islamic State (ISIS) has lost control of its statelet in Iraq and Syria, the war against the remnants of the organization is not over, despite President Trump’s claim to the contrary.[1] Anti-Assad rebels still control various parts of Syria with non-ISIS jihadis controlling Idlib in the northwest and the Kurds commanding the northeast. Fighting over these enclaves will likely occupy the immediate future. In addition, any “deescalation” agreements remain subject to collapse or cancellation at the convenience of Assad and his backers.[2] But the longer-term question is what happens next? Will the wars in Syria and Iraq finally end, or will there be another round of insurgencies? And will ISIS again go underground to rebuild as it has before?[3]

The Situation on the Ground

While ISIS and other groups have made preparations for going underground to resume an insurgency,[4] the success of such efforts depends on at least two factors: how well the Syrian and Iraqi governments reestablish effective governance and security and are able to identify and root out the rebel infrastructures;[5] and whether these governments can manage reconstruction and reconciliation, especially reintegration of Sunni Arabs.

Syrian refugees in Iraq. Credit: EU
Syrian refugees in Iraq. Credit: EU

Governance and security. Reestablishing effective governance
and security requires that national governments enforce and maintain
effective control over areas previously held by ISIS or other
insurgents. If the governments succeed, it will be much harder for
opposition groups to go underground and remain functional.

But restoring security will be extraordinarily difficult. For a start, the anti-ISIS war is not over. Though their command structure has largely been shattered, there are still residual ISIS pockets and cells to dig out.[6] Moreover, the parts of ISIS most likely to have survived—senior commanders and the security apparatus—are the parts most able to regenerate the organization.[7] The war against the terrorists has also been only one aspect of the multi-sided civil war in Syria. There are ample opportunities for further wars there and in Iraq. These may be driven by rival nationalisms: Turkey has demonstrated its readiness to go to war against the Kurds in Syria and has occasionally talked about enlarging its borders,[8] and Iraqi Kurds unsuccessfully tried to do so.[9] Factional rivalries and competing ambitions between regional states[10] as well as Israel’s sustained efforts to prevent Iran’s military entrenchment in Syria could lead to a wider conflagration. Various Sunni states may be prepared to continue support of Sunni factions as a way to distract Iran and other enemies or may look the other way when factions within those states give such support.

It is also possible that the Middle East is in the opening round of multiple civil and proxy wars within Islam: between governments and movements that have weaponized Shiite and Sunni Islam;[11] between Shiite factions allied or opposed to Iran, and among the Sunni jihadists. These wars are likely to be protracted and bloody and will further increase religious polarization and violence within the region and within Islam as a whole, and can potentially destabilize much of the Middle East.

The capabilities of both the Syrian and Iraqi governments are limited; their ability to effectively govern and conduct long-term counterinsurgencies is uncertain. While the collapse of the Iraqi security forces in the face of ISIS has been widely noted, the collapse of the Syrian military was even more comprehensive. The Baghdad government and the Assad regime have only partially recovered, with many of the forces nominally aligned with them in reality being factional militias that serve their own agendas or those of foreign sponsors.[12] This is most prominent in Iraq where the Kurds are effectively an autonomous government and where major parts of the Popular Mobilization Forces militias created in the aftermath of the 2014 Iraqi security collapse are under Iranian control. It is also the case in Syria where its Kurds also desire autonomy and where many militias such as the Lebanese Hezbollah function independently of the Assad regime.[13] Will these forces accept and support government policies with which they (or their patrons) disagree? Or are they more likely to pursue their own agendas, if necessary at the expense of the national governments they nominally support?

Reconstruction and reconciliation. National reconstruction and reconciliation, especially reintegration of the Sunni Arabs, will present uphill struggles. First, there is some question about how much reconstruction the Iraqi and Syrian governments will be able to undertake even with foreign aid. Much of each country has been economically, socially, and physically devastated, both by ISIS rule and by the wars to drive the organization out and their aftermaths.[14]

A destroyed part of Raqqa, Syria. Photo by Mahmoud Bali (VOA), Wikimedia Commons.
A destroyed part of Raqqa, Syria. Photo by Mahmoud Bali (VOA), Wikimedia Commons.

Large parts of Syria have been devastated by the civil war unrelated to ISIS. There are also millions of refugees, mostly Sunnis, which the Assad regime will likely be reluctant to resettle. Meanwhile, both the Iraqi and especially Syrian governments are effectively bankrupt. Assad’s war has been largely bankrolled by Tehran,[15] and his Russian and Iranian patrons are unlikely to be inclined or able to fund the enormous reconstruction costs, estimated to be between $250-300 billion.[16] A preliminary World Bank estimate of Iraqi reconstruction costs from February 2018 was $88 billion.[17] The Trump administration is also unenthusiastic about nation-building, and as of March 2018, had pledged only a $3 billion line of credit.[18] And while the Persian Gulf monarchies have made promises to Iraq,[19] and Riyadh has cautiously opened up to Baghdad to push back against Iranian influence,[20] it remains to be seen whether these governments will actually come up with the money.

Meanwhile, the rest of the international community is likely to experience donor fatigue.[21] Beyond this, is the question of how much of the available money will get to the Sunnis who have been hardest hit: As of early 2019, the Iraqi government had provided virtually no reconstruction money to Ninevah province, which includes Mosul).[22] To whatever degree Syrian and Iraqi Sunni Arabs manage—or are allowed—to recover may be in spite of policies of their governments rather than because of them.

As for national reconciliation, while the Damascus and Baghdad regimes may have made some efforts in that direction in the past, the situations do not look promising. The continuing wars against rebels in Syria will likely be hard and protracted. It is all too likely that ultimately the victors (especially the Assad regime) will pursue a vindictive peace in an atmosphere of religious polarization[23] and widespread individual and group hatred and revenge.[24] Even now, the Assad regime has been confiscating and selling the properties of refugees and those considered rebels.[25]

It is unclear how much the Assad regime will even try to reconcile its Sunni subjects. The Syrian president has made clear his intent to reconquer militarily all of the country, and one must expect the same brutal tactics he has used so far.[26] Assad prefers brutality since his aim is not only to win the war but to intimidate the survivors.[27] The idea that one cannot kill one’s way out of an insurgency is a Western conceit that others, especially the Russians and Middle Easterners, dismiss with contempt—after all, that is precisely what Bashar Assad’s father did to put down a rebellion in the early 1980s.

In Iraq, the previous government of Prime Minister Haidar Abadi made efforts to reconcile the Sunni Arab minority and protect it from blood revenge and collective tribal responsibility for the actions of individual members.[28] Current prime minister Adil Abd al-Mahdi appears to favor a moderate policy, but how much he can actually deliver remains to be seen. He has no independent power base,[29] controls his own government only partially, and has limited or no control over many of the Shiite militias of the Popular Mobilization Forces, who are frequently supported or controlled by Tehran and have driven a sectarian agenda. Meanwhile, it is reasonable to expect that the popular sentiment of much or most of the Shiite and Kurdish populations, not to mention the surviving non-Muslim religious minorities, favor punishing the Iraqi Sunni Arabs for being pro-ISIS or insufficiently anti-ISIS.[30] Villages and tribes often take their own retribution whether it is government policy or not.[31]

Clearly, there are ample grounds for pessimism.

The Future of ISIS

But the situation does not necessarily favor ISIS as the requirements needed to function underground may work against it. While there remains an atmosphere of massive Sunni grievance and a power vacuum that ISIS could theoretically exploit, how well it will be able to do so is still a question.

Islamic State. Photo Credit: Fars News Agency
Islamic State. Photo Credit: Fars News Agency

For a start, since foreign fighters have been killed, captured, or
have fled and not been replaced, ISIS has reverted to being more and
more Syrian and (especially) Iraqi. Foreign fighters provided much of
the core strength of ISIS and replacing them will be difficult. But even
if they stayed, these foreign fighters would be ill-suited for
underground resistance in their host countries. Thousands of them came
from outside the Arab world, in particular the West, sub-Saharan Africa,
Asia, and areas of the former Soviet Union, and are likely to speak
Arabic poorly and to appear non-Arab. These foreigners, as well as Arabs
with non-Syrian or non-Iraqi Arabic accents, or for that matter anyone
non-local, are likely to get close attention from the security
authorities, hindering them going underground.

Various world, national, regional, and local security forces will also be trying to identify, locate, and eliminate ISIS holdouts gone underground.[32] In the Mosul campaign alone, the Iraqi authorities had more than 30,000 suspects’ names in December 2016, and by January 2018, had some 6,000 captured ISIS suspects awaiting execution. In addition, some factions may not be waiting on legal niceties. Local and regional services, in particular the Assad regime’s, can be expected to err on the side of excess.[33]

ISIS also made many other enemies who will be out for revenge. Syria’s conflict, in particular, has been a multi-sided civil war with ISIS fighting many other anti-Assad factions, including nationalists and various other jihadists.[34] The situation has also been complex in Iraq. Even if ISIS did have some local support that was not coerced or opportunistic,[35] it ruled as conqueror even at the expense of local allies. Indeed, its first purge after taking over Mosul was of former allies.[36] In particular, ISIS and al-Qaeda factions in Syria have spent extensive time and effort killing each other, and there are irreconcilable major differences between ISIS and al-Qaeda Central, particularly over leadership of the global jihadist movement.[37] These conflicts can be expected to continue underground.

Finally, popular resentment of ISIS’s brutal tactics has produced numerous personal grudges to be settled. An obvious way to settle scores will be to turn in ISIS fighters to the security forces. Financial rewards would be a further incentive. And if government screening seems too lenient, or corrupt, individuals personally may target ISIS members for revenge killings.[38]

ISIS is thus unlikely to have the same favorable atmosphere to maintain or rebuild its underground structure as previously, especially in Mosul, where its predecessor organization, al-Qaeda in Iraq/Islamic State of Iraq, was never really removed even when the U.S. military was present in force,[39] and in Syria, where the Assad regime had tolerated, if not supported, their operations against the coalition in Iraq. ISIS may retain a degree of control in some pockets, but many of its survivors are likely to give priority to their own survival, not continuing the war. They may also turn to crime.[40]

Another complicating factor for ISIS will be losing its claim of the right to rule. Aside from the loss of legitimacy due to losing a war and bringing vast devastation to the people on whose behalf the war was supposedly fought, as ISIS tries to return to the underground its narrative will have been discredited. It will only be able to spin defeat for so long. It is much more difficult to argue from failure than from success, and the physical and psychological attractions of the “caliphate” will no longer exist. ISIS will be unable to offer the thrill of being a warrior for God and a licensed outlaw, or promise the availability of sex slaves for unmarried young men, or the expectation of living in a truly Islamic utopia.

Islamic State leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi. Photo Credit: Screenshot from video released by Islamic State's al-Furqan Media
Islamic State leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi. Photo Credit: Screenshot from video released by Islamic State’s al-Furqan Media

Much of the support ISIS received, especially foreign, was due to its claim to be a genuine state in control of territory and its apparent success in routing its enemies. Previously, ISIS could claim to be living up to its motto of “Remaining and Expanding.”[41] The self-named “caliph” Abu Bakr Baghdadi claimed his exalted position by right of conquest.[42] Since these successes were considered manifestations of God’s favor, what will happen now that those are gone? At what point will it become impossible to ignore that God is no longer intervening on their behalf or that the state Baghdadi claimed to rule is no longer on the map? Assuming Baghdadi has not fled, it will be difficult for him to claim to be ruler of much of anything. He is unlikely to find sanctuary in a neighboring state—such as al-Qaeda Central and the Taliban had in Pakistan and Iran after 9/11 and the previous iteration of the Islamic State had in Syria. However, Turkey remains a remote possibility as the Erdoğan government has been suspiciously lenient toward ISIS and may hope to use ex-ISIS fighters against the Kurds.[43] If Baghdadi is shown to be killed, it will automatically dissolve all oaths of allegiance made to him, which will both dissolve the organization and leave the survivors up for grabs.

The Other Insurgents

While ISIS may find it difficult to recover, these difficulties may
not apply to other insurgent groups, in particular Hayat Tahrir
ash-Sha’m (HTS) in Syria and whatever Sunni nationalist groups have
managed to survive in Iraq.

Hayat Tahrir ash-Sha’m. At one time known as al-Qaeda in Syria,[44] Hayat Tahrir ash-Sha’m split off from ISIS (and also from al-Qaeda) and is, aside from the ambiguous case of the Syrian Kurds, probably the largest of the remaining non-ISIS, anti-Assad factions. Significantly, it appears to have learned from past mistakes and gradually modified its strategy and tactics from those previously standard to al-Qaeda. It may even have made these changes in spite of the policy of al-Qaeda Central, as did other al-Qaeda affiliates and branches, especially in Yemen and Mali.[45] Among its major adaptations,

  • It has sought to collaborate and build alliances with existing Islamist (or even non-Islamic) rebel groups and to a degree reflects their concerns.[46] It has thus selectively prioritized local rather than international operations, which means it can potentially tap into significantly larger reservoirs of support than ISIS, such as other jihadists that ISIS has alienated. It can also exploit latent support for jihadism and appeal to the substantial portion of Islamic opinion that is functionally radical by claiming to wage a defensive jihad rather than an offensive one.[47]
  • Instead of trying to impose its version of Shari’a immediately, it has sought to do so gradually, pursuing what might be called jihadization from below, intending to cultivate a base of support and ultimately build a mass movement.[48]
  • It has been more selective, or at least less indiscriminate, in targeting of terrorist attacks. In 2013, Aymann Zawahiri, leader of al-Qaeda Central, instructed al-Qaeda to avoid mass casualty attacks, especially those that kill Muslim civilians.[49]
  • To deal with the collapse of governments, it has tried to set up a governing structure and enforce order. In Syria, it has assumed control of courts and law enforcement, leaving other administration to other groups.[50]

For these reasons, and especially in comparison to ISIS, Hayat Tahrir ash-Sha’m has come to be considered a “moderate” extremist group, the only one that could plausibly provide other factions with protection from ISIS.[51] These changes have the potential to make it appear less foreign, gain some local support, and at least significantly reduce the reasons for al-Qaeda’s past loss of popular support. In particular, a degree of local support may enable Hayat Tahrir ash-Sha’m to maintain an underground organizational structure in Syria even if its current enclave in Idlib is overrun.

Iraq’s Sunni Arab nationalist groups. The situation is different in Iraq. There the al-Qaeda brand has likely been profoundly damaged by ISIS as the direct descendent of al-Qaeda in Iraq/Islamic State in Iraq and the murderously bloodthirsty Abu Musab al-Zarqawi; al-Qaeda cannot claim any separation between itself and ISIS. Further, in Iraq, ISIS has pretty much monopolized the jihadists. However, this handicap does not necessarily apply to other insurgents, especially Sunni Arab nationalist groups. Prior to ISIS, the most significant of these was the Jaysh Rijal at-Tariqa an-Naqshbandia (JRTN, Army of the Men of the Naqshbandi Order /Naqshbandi Army). This is a nominally non-sectarian (though it claims some roots in Sunni-Sufi Islam) and neo-Baathist organization formed by Izzat ad-Duri, one of Saddam Hussein’s top chieftains, after the Iraqi dictator was executed. Largely composed of Saddam-era military officers and officials, it aims to restore the Baathist system.[52] In late 2014, it was considered the second most powerful Sunni insurgent force in Iraq after ISIS, with at least some degree of popular support.[53] In the past JRTN has operated with and hired other groups, using them as a force multiplier.[54] Initially it cooperated with ISIS (which designated a former Baathist general from the JRTN as the first governor of Mosul when it took over), but in 2016, it claimed to be attacking ISIS when coalition forces began the recapture of Mosul.[55] However, at present, no additional information is available on the JRTN, its ties with other groups, with other Sunni nationalist groups, its present situation, or whether the group survived ISIS.

Conclusions

While ISIS may intend to resume its underground existence in Syria
and Iraq, this may turn out to be much more difficult than expected.
Although at first glance, the postwar environment may appear fertile for
the terror group to pursue such a strategy, there are other factors
that may make it difficult for ISIS fighters, especially foreigners, to
go underground—in particular, widespread factional and popular hostility
to ISIS and the loss of theological/ideological and functional
legitimacy due to defeat.

But while ISIS may be less of a threat than commonly supposed, this does not mean it will not be a threat at all. ISIS survived and recovered from a previous massive defeat in Iraq because its enemies did not finish the job of eradicating it—a situation with ominous parallels to the present.[56] Even more important, ISIS is not the only force of insurgents in the field, especially in Syria.

Hayat Tahrir ash-Sha’m, ambiguously an al-Qaeda offshoot, has
modified its strategy and has pursued a long-game of sinking roots into
Syrian society while pursuing jihadization from the ground up. Over
time, the group is likely to absorb surviving jihadists from other
organizations, possibly including ISIS survivors. Since there is no
reason to believe that Assad will modify his murderous method of rule,
one should expect at least one or more low-level insurgencies in Syria.

The present situation in Iraq is somewhat less acute, and the country has better prospects for recovery and reconciliation than Syria.[57] But this depends on the Iraqi government effectively carrying out reconstruction and reconciliation policies. If this does not happen, it is reasonable to expect at least a continuing low-level insurgency, either by ISIS remnants or, more likely, by Sunni Arab nationalists.

There is not a great deal Washington can do to influence events in
either country. If recent Middle Eastern history teaches anything, it is
that one should never underestimate local players’ ability to make bad
situations even worse.

*About the author: Thomas R. McCabe is a retired Defense Department analyst and a retired U.S. Air Force reserve lieutenant colonel who worked ten years as a Middle East military analyst and two years as a counterterrorism analyst. This article represents solely his opinion.

Source: This article was published by Middle East Forum, Summer 2019


Notes:

[1] Reuters, Dec. 19, 2018; USA Today, Dec. 20, 2018.

[2] Christopher Kozak, “Warning Update: Pro-Assad Coalition Set to Escalate in Southern Syria,” Institute for the Study of War, Washington, D.C., Jan. 31, 2018.

[3] Patrick Cockburn, “Inside Syria: With its enemies diverted or fighting each other, ISIS is making a swift and deadly comeback,” The Independent (London), Mar. 4, 2018.

[4] Patrick Ryan and Patrick Johnston, “After the Battle for Mosul, Get Ready for the Islamic State to Go Underground,War on the Rocks (Washington, D.C.), Oct. 18, 2016.

[5] John Arterbury, “To destroy the Islamic State, We must follow it into the desert,The New Statesman (London), Dec. 2, 2016.

[6] NBC News, Jan. 20, 2018.

[7] Asaad Almohammad and Charlie Winter, “From Directorate of Intelligence to Directorate of Everything: The Islamic State’s Emergent Amni-Media Nexus,” Perspectives on Terrorism, Feb. 2019.

[8] Nick Danforth, “Turkey’s New Maps Are Reclaiming the Ottoman Empire,” Foreign Policy, Oct. 23, 2016.

[9] Joost Hiltermann and Maria Fantappie, “Twilight of the Kurds,Foreign Policy, Jan. 16, 2018.

[10] Liz Sly, “10 new wars that could be unleashed as a result of the one against ISIS,The Washington Post, Sept. 7, 2016.

[11] Ali Fathollah-Nejad, “The Iranian-Saudi Hegemonic Rivalry,” Belfer Center Special Initiative Iran Matters, Cambridge, Mass., Oct. 25, 2017.

[12] Jack Watling, “After ISIS, Iraq’s Militias Face Another Fight: Legitimacy,Defense One (Washington, D.C.), Dec. 22, 2016.

[13] Tobias Schneider, “The Decay of the Syrian Regime Is Actually Much Worse Than You Think,War on the Rocks, Aug. 31, 2016; Roy Gutman, “Assad Used Nerve Gas Because He’s Desperate. Expect Worse to Come,The Daily Beast (New York), Apr. 12, 2017.

[14] Associated Press, Aug. 13, 2016.

[15] Eli Lake, “Iran Spends Billions to Prop Up Assad,Bloomberg (New York), June 9, 2015.

[16] Associated Press, Jan. 13, 2019.

[17] Rhys Dubin, “The Post-Islamic State Marshall Plan That Never Was,Foreign Policy, Feb. 15, 2018.

[18] Newsweek, Feb. 13, 2018.

[19] Dubin, “The Post-Islamic State Marshall Plan That Never Was.”

[20] Fathollah-Nejad, “The Iranian-Saudi Hegemonic Rivalry.”

[21] Carla E. Humud, Christopher M. Blanchard, and Mary Beth D. Nikitin, “Armed Conflict in Syria: Overview and U.S. Response,” Congressional Research Service, Washington, D.C., Apr. 7, 2017, pp. 19-20.

[22] CNN, Mar. 5, 2019.

[23] Brandon Friedman and Uzi Rabi, “Sectarianism and War in Iraq and Syria,E-Notes, Foreign Policy Research Institute, Phila., Jan. 5, 2017.

[24] Peter Bergen, “Will Iraq survive victory over ISIS in Mosul?” CNN, Mar. 21, 2017.

[25] “Bulldozing Over the Revolution: Syria’s regime is stealing land from its opponents,The Economist, Nov. 2, 2017.

[26] Ben Taub, “The Assad Files: Capturing the top-secret documents that tie the Syrian regime to mass torture and killings,The New Yorker, Apr. 18, 2016.

[27] “Report of the Independent International Commission of Inquiry on the Syrian Arab Republic,” United Nations General Assembly, New York, Feb. 2, 2017.

[28] Osama Gharizi and Haidar al-Ibrahimi, “Baghdad Must Seize the Chance to Work with Iraq’s Tribes,War on the Rocks, Jan. 17, 2018.

[29] Simona Foltyn, “Will Iraq’s Old Divisions Undermine Its New Prime Minister?Foreign Policy, Feb. 5, 2019.

[30] Emile Hokayem, “The end of the Islamic State will make the Middle East worse,The Washington Post, Oct. 28, 2016.

[31] VOA News, Jan. 25, 2018.

[32] Noura Hourani and Maria Nelson, “The network: A virtual hunt for Islamic State fighters fleeing Syria,Syria Direct (Amman), Jan. 26, 2018.

[33] Josie Ensor, “British jihadists fleeing Mosul could face the death sentence in Iraq’s makeshift courts,The Telegraph (London), Dec. 2, 2016; PBS NewsHour, Jan. 4, 2017; Der Spiegel (Hamburg), May 2, 2017; The Washington Post, Dec. 28, 2017.

[34] Fabrice Balanche, “Status of the Syrian Rebellion: Numbers, Ideologies, and Prospects,” Washington Institute for Near East Policy, Washington, D.C., Nov. 22, 2016.

[35] CNN, Mar. 1, 2019.

[36] Ghaith Abdul-Ahad, “The bureaucracy of evil: how Islamic State ran a city,The Guardian (London), Jan. 29, 2018.

[37] Brian Fishman , The Master Plan (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2016), pp. 247-59; Daveed Gartenstein-Ross, Jason Fritz, Bridget Moreng, and Nathaniel Barr, “Islamic State vs al- Qaeda,” New America, Washington, D.C., Dec. 2015; Clint Watts, “Deciphering Competition Between al-Qa’ida and the Islamic State,CTC Sentinel (West Point), July 27, 2016.

[38] Matt Cetti-Roberts, “Mosul’s Avenging Angels; with locals’ help, Iraqi police round up ISIS supporters,War Is Boring, Mar. 8, 2017; Newsweek, Oct. 2, 2017; ABC News (Australia), Dec. 17, 2017.

[39] Tallha Abdulrazaq and Gareth Stansfield, “The Enemy Within: ISIS and the Conquest of Mosul,” Middle East Journal, Autumn 2016, pp. 525-42.

[40] “Iraq; Military Operation Defeats White Flag,” STRATFOR Snapshots, STRATFOR, Austin, Tex., Feb. 7, 2018.

[41] Dabiq, Al-Hayat Media Center, ISIS, no. 5.

[42] Abu Muhammad al-Adnani, “This Is the Promise of Allah,” Jihadist News, SITE Institute, Bethesda, Md., June 29, 2014.

[43] Meira Svirsky, “Secrets and Lies: Turkey’s Covert Relationship with ISIS,” The Clarion Project, Washington, D.C., Mar. 29, 2016; Uzay Bulut, “Turkey Releases ISIS Suspects,” The Clarion Project, Apr. 3, 2016; Aaron Stein, “The Islamic State in Turkey: A Deep Dive into a Dark Place,War on the Rocks, Apr. 6, 2016; Patrick Cockburn, “Turkey accused of recruiting ex-Isis fighters in their thousands to attack Kurds in Syria,The Independent, Feb. 7, 2018.

[44] Colin Clark, “Al-Qaeda in Syria Can Change Its Name, but Not Its Stripes,Cipher Brief (Washington, D.C.), Mar. 23, 2017.

[45] Charles Lister, “How Al-Qaeda Lost Control of Its Syrian Affiliate: The Inside Story,CTC Sentinel, Feb. 2018; Thomas R. McCabe, “Has al-Qaeda Learned From Its Mistakes?Middle East Quarterly, Spring 2018.

[46] Aymenn Al-Tamimi, “The Formation of Hay’at Tahrir al-Sham and Wider Tensions in the Syrian Insurgency,CTC Sentinel, Feb. 22, 2017.

[47] McCabe, “Has al-Qaeda Learned from Its Mistakes?

[48] Yasir Abbas, “How al-Qaeda Is Winning in Syria,War on the Rocks, May 10, 2016; Charles Lister, “The Dawn of Mass Jihad: Success in Syria Fuels al-Qa’ida’s Evolution,CTC Sentinel, Sept. 7, 2016.

[49] Bruce Hoffman, “Al-Qaeda’s Resurrection,” Council on Foreign Relations Expert Brief, Washington, D.C. and New York, Mar. 6, 2018.

[50] Samuel Heller, “The Governance Strategy of Jabhat al-Nusra and Jabhat Fatah al-Sham,” in Aaron Y. Zelin, ed., How al-Qaeda Survived Drones, Uprisings, and the Islamic State (Washington, D.C.: Washington Institute for Near East Policy, 2017), p. 42.

[51] Colin P. Clarke, “The Moderate Face of al Qaeda,Foreign Affairs Snapshot, Oct. 24, 2017; Tamimi, “The Formation of Hay’at Tahrir al-Sham.

[52] Michael Knights, “The JRTN Movement and Iraq’s Next Insurgency,CTC Sentinel, July 2011; Aymen Jawad Al-Tamimi, “The Naqshbandi Army’s Current Situation in Iraq,” Pundicity blog, Dec. 26, 2014; “Jaysh Rijal al-Tariqa al-Naqshbandia (JRTN),” Mapping Militant Organizations, Stanford University, July 27, 2015.

[53] “Jaysh Rijal al-Tariqa al-Naqshbandia (JRTN).”

[54] Ibid.

[55] Emily Anagnostos, Jessica Lewis McFate, Jennifer Cafarella, and Alexandra Gutowski, “Anticipating Iraq’s Next Sunni Insurgency,” Institute for the Study of War, Washington, D.C., Nov. 30, 2016.

[56] The New York Times, Mar. 7, 2019.

[57] See, for example, Kevin Baron, “The War in Iraq Isn’t Done. Commanders Explain Why and What’s Next,Defense One, Mar. 22, 2018.

Eurasia Review

1. US Security from Michael_Novakhov (88 sites)

The Global Security News

The Global Security News: Counterintelligence from Michael_Novakhov (51 sites): Eurasia Review: Urgent Action Needed To Scale-Up Energy Access In Least Developed Countries – Analysis

By Santo D. Banerjee

The world’s 47 least developed countries (LDCs) will fail to achieve global sustainable energy targets by 2030 unless urgent and enhanced action is undertaken. This was the backdrop to discussions which took place on May 30-31, 2019 at a United Nations conference on ‘Scaling-Up Energy Access and Finance in the Least Developed Countries’ in Beijing, China.

UN
Office of the High Representative for the Least Developed Countries,
Landlocked Developing Countries and Small Island Developing States (UN-OHRILLS)
said that while considerable progress has been made by this group of
countries to increase the average rate of access to electricity from
33.4 per cent in 2010 to 51 per cent in 2017, this is in stark contrast
to the global electrification rate of 88.8 per cent in 2017.

Besides,
the LDCs face major disparities in energy access between urban and
rural populations. In 2017, on average, 79 per cent of urban populations
had electricity access, compared with only 37.8 per cent of rural
populations. Regional disparities are also evident, where the
Asia-Pacific LDCs are faring better with an electrification rate of 86.2
per cent compared to 33.2 per cent in African LDCs.

Much
to the concern of the UN, 14 African LDCs still have electrification
rates lower than 30 per cent and the 20 least-electrified countries in
the world are all LDCs.

While
overall assessments of progress in energy access illustrate major
challenges, conference participants reflected on major progress being
made. Countries such as Afghanistan, Bangladesh and Cambodia have all
electrified at a rate of about 5 per cent per year since 2010. Many LDCs
have already successfully tapped into using hydropower, and the use of
solar and wind power is also increasing.

The
key message of the UN High Representative for the Least Developed
Countries, Landlocked Developing Countries and Small Island Developing
States, Fekitamoeloa Katoa ‘Utoikamanu, to conference participants was
that Sustainable Development Goal 7 in the Least Developed Countries is “within reach”.

She added: “We must step up and we need urgent action. Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)
is about our collective vision to leave no one behind. So, our
responsibility is to work together and forge even stronger partnerships,
ensuring that the global energy transition to sustainable and modern
energy also reaches the poorest and most vulnerable communities in the
world.”

The
conference also witnessed substantive discussions on boosting
investment in LDCs where current financing levels are significantly
below what is required to achieve SDG7, calling for ensuring “access to
affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy”.

According
to current estimates, in order to achieve SDG7, between 2018 and 2030,
annual average investment globally will need to reach approximately $55
billion to expand energy access, about $700 billion to increase
renewable energy, and $600 billion to improve energy efficiency.
Currently, investments are not spread equally and many LDCs lack the
capacity to access existing funding mechanisms.

A
draft outcome circulated at the conference laid out concrete
deliverables including the call for the launch of a large-scale
initiative to bring forward the countries that are furthest behind first
as well as establishing a network of energy focal points in LDCs.

The
draft outcome also illustrated the need for sustainable energy to be
one of the central thematic topics to be featured in the new 10-year
programme of action for the LDCs to be adopted at the Fifth UN Conference on the LDCs in 2021.
Furthermore, the outcome of the conference is expected to feature in
discussions at the Climate Action Summit at the UN Headquarters on
September 23, 2019.

The
Conference was jointly organised by the United Nations Office of the
High Representative for the Least Developed Countries, Landlocked
Developing Countries and Small Island Developing States and the Global
Energy Interconnection Development and Cooperation Organization (GEIDCO).
It brought together 200 participants representing governments, United
Nations agencies, international and regional organizations, civil
society, private sector, business community and think-tanks.

Eurasia Review

Counterintelligence from Michael_Novakhov (51 sites)

The Global Security News

The Global Security News: 1. US Security from Michael_Novakhov (88 sites): Eurasia Review: Urgent Action Needed To Scale-Up Energy Access In Least Developed Countries – Analysis

By Santo D. Banerjee

The world’s 47 least developed countries (LDCs) will fail to achieve global sustainable energy targets by 2030 unless urgent and enhanced action is undertaken. This was the backdrop to discussions which took place on May 30-31, 2019 at a United Nations conference on ‘Scaling-Up Energy Access and Finance in the Least Developed Countries’ in Beijing, China.

UN
Office of the High Representative for the Least Developed Countries,
Landlocked Developing Countries and Small Island Developing States (UN-OHRILLS)
said that while considerable progress has been made by this group of
countries to increase the average rate of access to electricity from
33.4 per cent in 2010 to 51 per cent in 2017, this is in stark contrast
to the global electrification rate of 88.8 per cent in 2017.

Besides,
the LDCs face major disparities in energy access between urban and
rural populations. In 2017, on average, 79 per cent of urban populations
had electricity access, compared with only 37.8 per cent of rural
populations. Regional disparities are also evident, where the
Asia-Pacific LDCs are faring better with an electrification rate of 86.2
per cent compared to 33.2 per cent in African LDCs.

Much
to the concern of the UN, 14 African LDCs still have electrification
rates lower than 30 per cent and the 20 least-electrified countries in
the world are all LDCs.

While
overall assessments of progress in energy access illustrate major
challenges, conference participants reflected on major progress being
made. Countries such as Afghanistan, Bangladesh and Cambodia have all
electrified at a rate of about 5 per cent per year since 2010. Many LDCs
have already successfully tapped into using hydropower, and the use of
solar and wind power is also increasing.

The
key message of the UN High Representative for the Least Developed
Countries, Landlocked Developing Countries and Small Island Developing
States, Fekitamoeloa Katoa ‘Utoikamanu, to conference participants was
that Sustainable Development Goal 7 in the Least Developed Countries is “within reach”.

She added: “We must step up and we need urgent action. Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)
is about our collective vision to leave no one behind. So, our
responsibility is to work together and forge even stronger partnerships,
ensuring that the global energy transition to sustainable and modern
energy also reaches the poorest and most vulnerable communities in the
world.”

The
conference also witnessed substantive discussions on boosting
investment in LDCs where current financing levels are significantly
below what is required to achieve SDG7, calling for ensuring “access to
affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy”.

According
to current estimates, in order to achieve SDG7, between 2018 and 2030,
annual average investment globally will need to reach approximately $55
billion to expand energy access, about $700 billion to increase
renewable energy, and $600 billion to improve energy efficiency.
Currently, investments are not spread equally and many LDCs lack the
capacity to access existing funding mechanisms.

A
draft outcome circulated at the conference laid out concrete
deliverables including the call for the launch of a large-scale
initiative to bring forward the countries that are furthest behind first
as well as establishing a network of energy focal points in LDCs.

The
draft outcome also illustrated the need for sustainable energy to be
one of the central thematic topics to be featured in the new 10-year
programme of action for the LDCs to be adopted at the Fifth UN Conference on the LDCs in 2021.
Furthermore, the outcome of the conference is expected to feature in
discussions at the Climate Action Summit at the UN Headquarters on
September 23, 2019.

The
Conference was jointly organised by the United Nations Office of the
High Representative for the Least Developed Countries, Landlocked
Developing Countries and Small Island Developing States and the Global
Energy Interconnection Development and Cooperation Organization (GEIDCO).
It brought together 200 participants representing governments, United
Nations agencies, international and regional organizations, civil
society, private sector, business community and think-tanks.

Eurasia Review

1. US Security from Michael_Novakhov (88 sites)

The Global Security News

The Global Security News: Counterintelligence from Michael_Novakhov (51 sites): Eurasia Review: Nepal: Dahal In A Hurry To Get PM Post – Analysis

By Dr. S. Chandrasekharan

On 16th May  2018, K.P. Oli head of the UML and P.K. Dahal head of the Maoists entered into an agreement to merge the two parties into one- to be called the Nepal Communist Party. 

Of the five points in the agreement, the fourth point was that the
chairs of the two groups will lead the Government on the basis of
equality for an equal period.

Oli became the Prime Minister on 15th February 2018 and therefore
according to the agreement which has no legal basis he has to hand over
charge of the post of PM to Dahal after two years and six months- that
would be roughly some time in August 2020 and there is quite a long time
to go.

That the two leaders had privately agreed to share the post of PM was
known to the public and there was nothing secret about it.  Yet during
the period between 30th May and 3rd June Dahal is
said to have raised the issue of taking over the post of PM three times
particularly when Oli was away in India to attend the swearing in
ceremony of the Indian Prime Minister. It is not clear why Dahal is in
such a great hurry? Is the move coming on his own or is he being
prompted by some of the erstwhile colleagues of the old UML?  That is
the question.

On one of the occasions, Dahal raised the issue himself and said that
Oli could continue for the entire five-year period if the government
steers clear of controversies thus giving the impression that it is upto
Dahal to decide whether Oli should continue beyond the two- and
half-year period or not. Who is to decide on the controversies? Dahal?
Madhav Nepal? Bam Dev Gautam or Jhalanath Khanal?

On 1st June this year, Dahal told the media persons that
he would become the Prime Minister in one year. When Oli was confronted
with this remark by the Press, he in his usual humorous style dismissed
the statement that he has just 4 to 5 days left as Prime Minister!

It may be recalled that in 2016 Oli reneged on an understanding he
had with Dahal to quit which he did not.  Dahal then joined hands with
the Nepali Congress to get Oli out of the post of the Prime Minister. 
Oli has not forgiven Dahal. He had also suspected then that India was
behind the move.

Oli’s Government does not appear to be functioning in unison.  As
Ghanshyam Bhushal had remarked the Ruling Party-the NCP is practically
functioning like a federation of factions!  His own colleagues in the
old UML- Madhav Nepal and Bam Dev Gautam are up against him and are seen
to be getting closer to Dahal and his factions.  The cadres down the
line are functioning like separate entities though on paper they are
supposed to be one.  The National Convention to be convened sometime
next year is supposed to solve these problems altogether but I doubt
whether it would. It is also said that ideological differences between
the two groups still persist- whether to continue with “People’s
multi-party democracy” as UML wants or “Maoist 21st Century
People’s Democracy” of the erstwhile Maoiss.  This will be decided in
the next unity national convention- though I doubt whether the leaders
are any more serious on these ideological questions.

Meantime, a radical breakaway faction of the Maoists- the Chand group
led by Netra Bikram Chand and known as Biplab in the insurgency days is
said to be attracting the old disenchanted comrades of erstwhile
Maoists.  Kathmandu and its environs were rocked with explosions just
last month and victims were mainly cadres belonging to Chand Group when
explosions took place while transporting or while making the bombs! Just
yesterday there was an alarm that the Chand group were upto some
mischief in the eastern region. There was concern in the security
establishment.  These incidents cannot be taken lightly and Oli much to
the chagrin of Dahal is taking tough measures to contain them.

But there is something to be wanting in Oli’s style of functioning. 
His intentions may be good, but he remains very acerbic and sarcastic in
dealing with the opposition leaders and even with his own colleagues. 
He is also too blunt.  For example, he is yet to get out of the mindset
that Nepal is just beginning with the experiment of a federal State and
much needs to be done with care and be sensitive to the provinces that
have been looking forward to take care of their provinces themselves! 

The Federal Government is yet to enact several federal laws and bye
laws and the provincial governments are up in arms.  Interestingly, six
of the seven provincial governments are run by Oli’s own party-the NCP.

On 7th of May, Oli said – “The provincial and Local
Governments are under the federal Government and federal laws.  They are
not independent governments.  This statement though correct was seen as
“detrimental to the spirit of the constitutional provisions and against
the spirit of Article 56 (1) and 232 of the Federal Constitution.

On 22nd May while inaugurating the laying of optical fibre
cable in Dhading, Oli repeated that provincial and local governments
are not separate entities but units under the federal government. This
is rubbing salt into the wounds of the provincial governments who
already feel cheated.

The local and Provincial governments have strongly criticized the
federal budget of the government and alleged that the fiscal estimates
are against the principle of federalism.

Khadga Bahadur Khatri, Minister for Physical Infrastructure
development in Karnali said that of the total budget- the government has
retained 70 percent of the budget while the remaining 30 percent has
been divided among 753 local governments and 7 provincial governments! 
Even significant chunks of budget meant for them have been allocated as
“conditional grants.”

Surely Oli could do something on the complaints of the local and provincial governments. 

He need not worry about Madhesi group now as Upendra Yadav besides
making noise about constitutional amendments is more keen to keep his
Deputy Prime Minister’s chair than go for any serious move to get the
amendments! He has the majority and the opposition is yet to recover
from the drubbing they got in the last elections. The only problem –
observers say is his health. 

People’s expectations are high and it is time Oli realises this.

Eurasia Review

Counterintelligence from Michael_Novakhov (51 sites)

The Global Security News

Blogs from Michael_Novakhov (21 sites): The FBI News Review: Alerta de Google: fbi: FBI-led investigation nets at least 21 arrests on prostitution charges

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June 09, 2019
Alerta de Google: fbi: FBI-led investigation nets at least 21 arrests on prostitution charges
Alerta de Google: fbi: FBI Confirm They’ve Analyzed "Big Foot" Hair
Crime and Criminology from Michael_Novakhov (10 sites): “political criminology” – Google News: University of Melbourne refuses to criticise academic who appears to support female genital mutilation – Herald Sun
FBI: 5 dead after series of shootings on Yakama Reservation – The Seattle Times
Lawmakers Question FBI’s Facial Recognition Program – Defense One

Alerta de Google: fbi: FBI-led investigation nets at least 21 arrests on prostitution charges

FBI from Michael_Novakhov (28 sites)
Bria L. Jones, 26, of Houma, was arrested at 12:35 p.m. June 7 and booked into the Shreveport City Jail at 2:45 p.m. June 7 then booked into Caddo Correctional Center at 8:42 a.m.
Read More

Alerta de Google: fbi: FBI Confirm They’ve Analyzed "Big Foot" Hair

FBI from Michael_Novakhov (28 sites)
It definitely wasn’t what they thought it was. People have been trying to prove that Big Foot exists for ages, and according to newly released documents from the FBI, the government agency actually looked into it at one point.
Read More

Crime and Criminology from Michael_Novakhov (10 sites): “political criminology” – Google News: University of Melbourne refuses to criticise academic who appears to support female genital mutilation – Herald Sun

FBI from Michael_Novakhov (28 sites)
University of Melbourne refuses to criticise academic who appears to support female genital mutilation Herald SunVictorias top university says it supports academic freedom as one of its professors has instructed students to potential benefits of outlawed female genital …
Read More

FBI: 5 dead after series of shootings on Yakama Reservation – The Seattle Times

The Seattle Times
Five people are dead after a series of shootings on the Yakama Reservation late Saturday, and now the FBI has joined tribal and Yakima County police to investigate. The shootings occurred in the reservation community of White Swan.
Read More

Lawmakers Question FBI’s Facial Recognition Program – Defense One

Defense One
Lawmakers on Tuesday grilled federal law enforcement officials on the integrity and legality of the government’s facial recognition programs, and criticized the nearly nonexistent oversight Congress has over those programs.
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Blogs from Michael_Novakhov (21 sites)

Michael Novakhov on Twitter from Michael_Novakhov (4 sites): mikenov on Twitter: RT @washingtonpost: Trump defends deal with Mexico that critics say will do little to curb migrant crisis wapo.st/2I5xSbV

Trump defends deal with Mexico that critics say will do little to curb migrant crisis wapo.st/2I5xSbV


Posted by

washingtonpost
on Sunday, June 9th, 2019 11:07pm
Retweeted by

mikenov
on Sunday, June 9th, 2019 11:08pm

181 likes, 80 retweets

mikenov on Twitter

Michael Novakhov on Twitter from Michael_Novakhov (4 sites)

Blogs from Michael_Novakhov (21 sites): Michael Novakhov on Twitter from Michael_Novakhov (4 sites): mikenov on Twitter: RT @washingtonpost: Trump defends deal with Mexico that critics say will do little to curb migrant crisis wapo.st/2I5xSbV

Trump defends deal with Mexico that critics say will do little to curb migrant crisis wapo.st/2I5xSbV


Posted by

washingtonpost
on Sunday, June 9th, 2019 11:07pm
Retweeted by

mikenov
on Sunday, June 9th, 2019 11:08pm

159 likes, 68 retweets

mikenov on Twitter

Michael Novakhov on Twitter from Michael_Novakhov (4 sites)

Blogs from Michael_Novakhov (21 sites)

Michael Novakhov on Twitter from Michael_Novakhov (4 sites): mikenov on Twitter: RT @nytopinion: This is Frank, a bloodhound used for tracking escaped prisoners. He is one of the dogs working at America’s largest maximum…

This is Frank, a bloodhound used for tracking escaped prisoners. He is one of the dogs working at America’s largest maximum-security prison. nyti.ms/2I30IK2


Posted by

nytopinion
on Sunday, June 9th, 2019 11:07pm
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mikenov
on Sunday, June 9th, 2019 11:08pm

20 likes, 11 retweets

mikenov on Twitter

Michael Novakhov on Twitter from Michael_Novakhov (4 sites)

Blogs from Michael_Novakhov (21 sites): Michael Novakhov on Twitter from Michael_Novakhov (4 sites): mikenov on Twitter: RT @nytopinion: This is Frank, a bloodhound used for tracking escaped prisoners. He is one of the dogs working at America’s largest maximum…

This is Frank, a bloodhound used for tracking escaped prisoners. He is one of the dogs working at America’s largest maximum-security prison. nyti.ms/2I30IK2


Posted by

nytopinion
on Sunday, June 9th, 2019 11:07pm
Retweeted by

mikenov
on Sunday, June 9th, 2019 11:08pm

20 likes, 11 retweets

mikenov on Twitter

Michael Novakhov on Twitter from Michael_Novakhov (4 sites)

Blogs from Michael_Novakhov (21 sites)

Michael Novakhov on Twitter from Michael_Novakhov (4 sites): mikenov on Twitter: RT @Newsweek: British politician Boris Johnson hung up on Donald Trump’s call because he thought it was a prank trib.al/6f4ItmP

British politician Boris Johnson hung up on Donald Trump’s call because he thought it was a prank
trib.al/6f4ItmP


Posted by

Newsweek
on Sunday, June 9th, 2019 10:50pm
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mikenov
on Sunday, June 9th, 2019 11:07pm

81 likes, 28 retweets

mikenov on Twitter

Michael Novakhov on Twitter from Michael_Novakhov (4 sites)

The Global Security News: Operation Novichok from Michael_Novakhov (23 sites): Michael Novakhov on Twitter from Michael_Novakhov (4 sites): Saved Stories – Michael Novakhov on Twitter: 3:02 PM 6/9/2019 – #Review: With all due disrespect for the involved parties, this is the same Russian-Jewish “#КЕГЕБЕШНАЯ #ЖИДОВНЯ” – See also: #RussianJews and #KGB | #FBI trumpandtrumpism.com/2019/06/09/302…

June 09, 2019

The Global Security News

The Global Security News: Charges pending as FBI investigates racist Lynnwood beating – The Daily Herald

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June 09, 2019
Charges pending as FBI investigates racist Lynnwood beating – The Daily Herald
The FBI News Review: McCabe: Comey’s Draft Statement Exonerating Clinton Two Months before Her FBI Interview Was Not Normal Protocol – Breitbart
Crime and Criminology from Michael_Novakhov (10 sites): “political crimes” – Google News: Exclusive: Brazil’s Top Prosecutors Who Indicted Lula Schemed in Secret Messages to Prevent His Party From Winning 2018 Election – The Intercept
“political criminology” – Google News: KU announces admissions in MPhil, PhD programmes – The Nation

Charges pending as FBI investigates racist Lynnwood beating – The Daily Herald

The Daily Herald
LYNNWOOD — Six months after an African-American DJ was stomped at a bar north of Lynnwood, eight suspects are still awaiting charges. It’s not clear if federal authorities will take the case, or if the charging decision will be made by the office of Snohomish County Prosecutor Adam Cornell.
Read More

The FBI News Review: McCabe: Comey’s Draft Statement Exonerating Clinton Two Months before Her FBI Interview Was Not Normal Protocol – Breitbart

FBI from Michael_Novakhov (28 sites)
June 09, 2019 FBI News Review at 17 Hours McCabe: Comey’s Draft Statement Exonerating Clinton Two Months before Her FBI Interview Was Not Normal Protocol – Breitbart “fbi scandal” – Google News: Journalists can’t repeat their Watergate-hero act.
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Crime and Criminology from Michael_Novakhov (10 sites): “political crimes” – Google News: Exclusive: Brazil’s Top Prosecutors Who Indicted Lula Schemed in Secret Messages to Prevent His Party From Winning 2018 Election – The Intercept

FBI from Michael_Novakhov (28 sites)
An enormous trove of secret documents reveals that Brazil’s most powerful prosecutors, who have spent years insisting they are apolitical, instead plotted to prevent the Workers’ Party (PT) from winning the 2018 presidential election by blocking or weakening a pre-election interview with former President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva with the explicit purpose of affecting the outcome of the election.
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“political criminology” – Google News: KU announces admissions in MPhil, PhD programmes – The Nation

FBI from Michael_Novakhov (28 sites)
KARACHI – Karachi University Registrar Professor Dr Saleem Shahzad has announced admissions in MPhil, PhD, MS and MD Programme 2019. He mentioned that admissions are available in the various departments of faculty of arts and social sciences, faculty of science, faculty of law, faculty of medicine, faculty of pharmacy and pharmaceutical sciences, faculty of management and administrative sciences, faculty of education, faculty of Islamic studies and other institutes and centers of Karachi University.
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The Global Security News: The FBI News Review: Charges pending as FBI investigates racist Lynnwood beating – The Daily Herald

Feedly Logo
June 09, 2019
Charges pending as FBI investigates racist Lynnwood beating – The Daily Herald
The FBI News Review: McCabe: Comey’s Draft Statement Exonerating Clinton Two Months before Her FBI Interview Was Not Normal Protocol – Breitbart
Crime and Criminology from Michael_Novakhov (10 sites): “political crimes” – Google News: Exclusive: Brazil’s Top Prosecutors Who Indicted Lula Schemed in Secret Messages to Prevent His Party From Winning 2018 Election – The Intercept
“political criminology” – Google News: KU announces admissions in MPhil, PhD programmes – The Nation

Charges pending as FBI investigates racist Lynnwood beating – The Daily Herald

The Daily Herald
LYNNWOOD — Six months after an African-American DJ was stomped at a bar north of Lynnwood, eight suspects are still awaiting charges. It’s not clear if federal authorities will take the case, or if the charging decision will be made by the office of Snohomish County Prosecutor Adam Cornell.
Read More

The FBI News Review: McCabe: Comey’s Draft Statement Exonerating Clinton Two Months before Her FBI Interview Was Not Normal Protocol – Breitbart

FBI from Michael_Novakhov (28 sites)
June 09, 2019 FBI News Review at 17 Hours McCabe: Comey’s Draft Statement Exonerating Clinton Two Months before Her FBI Interview Was Not Normal Protocol – Breitbart “fbi scandal” – Google News: Journalists can’t repeat their Watergate-hero act.
Read More

Crime and Criminology from Michael_Novakhov (10 sites): “political crimes” – Google News: Exclusive: Brazil’s Top Prosecutors Who Indicted Lula Schemed in Secret Messages to Prevent His Party From Winning 2018 Election – The Intercept

FBI from Michael_Novakhov (28 sites)
An enormous trove of secret documents reveals that Brazil’s most powerful prosecutors, who have spent years insisting they are apolitical, instead plotted to prevent the Workers’ Party (PT) from winning the 2018 presidential election by blocking or weakening a pre-election interview with former President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva with the explicit purpose of affecting the outcome of the election.
Read More

“political criminology” – Google News: KU announces admissions in MPhil, PhD programmes – The Nation

FBI from Michael_Novakhov (28 sites)
KARACHI – Karachi University Registrar Professor Dr Saleem Shahzad has announced admissions in MPhil, PhD, MS and MD Programme 2019. He mentioned that admissions are available in the various departments of faculty of arts and social sciences, faculty of science, faculty of law, faculty of medicine, faculty of pharmacy and pharmaceutical sciences, faculty of management and administrative sciences, faculty of education, faculty of Islamic studies and other institutes and centers of Karachi University.
Read More
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The FBI News Review

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Michael Novakhov on Twitter from Michael_Novakhov (4 sites): mikenov on Twitter: #KaiserTrump #MAGATrump #Litlle #Ugly #MaggotTrump #MuggerTrump #MAAGGATrump You are #AbwehrMAAGGATrump: #MakeAbwehrAndGermanyGreatAgain! TrumpAndTrumpism.com TrumpInvestigations.blogspot.com #Attention: #FBI #CIA #ODNI #CI #CounterIntellugence #Trump #TrumpInvestigations #USA pic.twitter.com/pBpMIMYlwV

#KaiserTrump #MAGATrump
#Litlle #Ugly #MaggotTrump
#MuggerTrump #MAAGGATrump
You are #AbwehrMAAGGATrump:
#MakeAbwehrAndGermanyGreatAgain!

TrumpAndTrumpism.com

TrumpInvestigations.blogspot.com

#Attention:

#FBI
#CIA
#ODNI
#CI
#CounterIntellugence

#Trump
#TrumpInvestigations

#USA pic.twitter.com/pBpMIMYlwV



Posted by

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on Sunday, June 9th, 2019 9:51pm

mikenov on Twitter

Michael Novakhov on Twitter from Michael_Novakhov (4 sites)

Michael Novakhov – SharedNewsLinks℠: 3:02 PM 6/9/2019 – #Review: With all due disrespect for the involved parties, this is the same Russian-Jewish “#КЕГЕБЕШНАЯ #ЖИДОВНЯ” – See also: #RussianJews and #KGB | #FBI | Trump and Trumpism – Review Of News And Opinions


Michael_Novakhov
shared this story
from Trump and Trumpism – Review Of News And Opinions.

3:02 PM 6/9/2019 – #Review: With all due #disrespect for the #involved #parties, this is the #same #Russian-#Jewish “#КЕГЕБЕШНАЯ #ЖИДОВНЯ” – See also: #RussianJews and #KGB | #FBI

With all due disrespect for the involved parties, this is the same Russian-Jewish “#КЕГЕБЕШНАЯ #ЖИДОВНЯ” – See also: #RussianJews and #KGB | #FBI

2:52 PM 6/9/2019 | Trump and Trumpism – Review Of News And Opinions

1 Share

2:52 PM 6/9/2019

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mikenov on Twitter: #KGBJews The #KGBJews #КЕГЕБЕШНАЯЖИДОВНЯ КЕГЕБЕШНАЯ ЖИДОВНЯ – Google Search Michael_Novakhov shared this story . 8:09 AM 6/5/2019 – With all due disrespect for the involved parties, this is the same Russian-Jewish “#КЕГЕБЕШНАЯ #ЖИДОВНЯ” – See also: #RussianJews and #KGB | #FBI pic.twitter.com/YuZZ3FyGVS
mikenov on Twitter: It is not #MAGA (which is just a front claim), it is #MATGA: #MakeTrumpGreatAgain, which is always on the back of his mind (see #Trump #MagaHat) and that is important and matters to him. The rest, including the Presidency are just the parts of #TrumpBrand ($4Bl) MAGA hat – Google pic.twitter.com/UwvtSVvXyy
RT @AbboyJorge: #WithoutMeYouWould never stand your ground #magahat pic.twitter.com/vpSJKlSdR3
Trump accuses Twitter of gagging conservatives, United States News & Top Stories – The Straits Times
“Donald Trump” – Google News: President Donald Trump Tweetstorm – The Sunday Edition – Deadline
Germany Stresses Support for Two-state Solution Ahead of Bahrain Conference
11:19 AM 6/9/2019 – It is not #MAGA (which is just a front claim), it is #MATGA: #MakeTrumpGreatAgain, which is always on the back of his mind
The #TrumpInvestigations #Blog by #MichaelNovakhov – #Review Of #News And #Opinions: 11:19 AM 6/9/2019 – It is not #MAGA (which is just a #front #claim), it is #MATGA: #MakeTrumpGreatAgain, which is #always on the #back of his #mind trumpinvestigations.blogspot.com/2019/06/1119-a…
CNN’s YouTube Videos: Bernie Sanders shares how he feels about trailing Biden
#KGBJews The #KGBJews #КЕГЕБЕШНАЯЖИДОВНЯ КЕГЕБЕШНАЯ ЖИДОВНЯ – Google Search Michael_Novakhov shared this story . 8:09 AM 6/5/2019 – With all due disrespect for the involved parties, this is the same Russian-Jewish “#КЕГЕБЕШНАЯ #ЖИДОВНЯ” – See also: #RussianJews and #KGB | #FBI pic.twitter.com/YuZZ3FyGVS
Mark Penn: If Trump probed Nadler, Schiff the way they conduct investigations on him, he’d be …
#JoelZamel’s name does not even come up in the searchable #MuellerReport, unless it is redacted due to “ongoing investigation” | #IsraeliinterventioninUSelections ‘vastly overwhelms’ anything #Russia has done, claims #NoamChomsky
Russian media repeat false claim on use of force in Donbas – Polygraph
“organized crime and terrorism” – Google News: The road to Ferguson: This 1980 bank robbery changed how American police are armed – Salon
CNN’s YouTube Videos: Fareed: Trump achieved one thing with his bullying behavior
It is not #MAGA (which is just a front claim), it is #MATGA: #MakeTrumpGreatAgain, which is always on the back of his mind (see #Trump #MagaHat) and that is important and matters to him. The rest, including the Presidency are just the parts of #TrumpBrand ($4Bl) MAGA hat – Google pic.twitter.com/UwvtSVvXyy
CNN’s YouTube Videos: Melania Trump critiqued over attire at royal dinner
maga hat back view – Google Search
Carter Page says he consulted State Department, FBI, and CIA for years
The silver lining to Trump’s incompetence – CNN
Melania Trump mostly silent in Europe but certainly seen – CNN
Trump, the “lying press” and the Nazis: Attacking the media has a history – Salon
Trump Says Twitter Should Reinstate All Of The Conservatives It Banned
2020 Democrats embrace a $15 US minimum wage as they target Trump’s economy – CNBC
Trump, the “lying press” and the Nazis: Attacking the media has a history – Salon
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mikenov on Twitter: #KGBJews The #KGBJews #КЕГЕБЕШНАЯЖИДОВНЯ КЕГЕБЕШНАЯ ЖИДОВНЯ – Google Search Michael_Novakhov shared this story . 8:09 AM 6/5/2019 – With all due disrespect for the involved parties, this is the same Russian-Jewish “#КЕГЕБЕШНАЯ #ЖИДОВНЯ” – See also: #RussianJews and #KGB | #FBI pic.twitter.com/YuZZ3FyGVS

#KGBJews The #KGBJews

#КЕГЕБЕШНАЯЖИДОВНЯ

КЕГЕБЕШНАЯ ЖИДОВНЯ – Google Search
Michael_Novakhov shared this story .
8:09 AM 6/5/2019 – With all due disrespect for the involved parties, this is the same Russian-Jewish “#КЕГЕБЕШНАЯ #ЖИДОВНЯ” – See also: #RussianJews and #KGB | #FBI pic.twitter.com/YuZZ3FyGVS



Posted by mikenov on Sunday, June 9th, 2019 2:39pm

 mikenov on Twitter

mikenov on Twitter: It is not #MAGA (which is just a front claim), it is #MATGA: #MakeTrumpGreatAgain, which is always on the back of his mind (see #Trump #MagaHat) and that is important and matters to him. The rest, including the Presidency are just the parts of #TrumpBrand ($4Bl) MAGA hat – Google pic.twitter.com/UwvtSVvXyy

It is not #MAGA (which is just a front claim), it is #MATGA: #MakeTrumpGreatAgain, which is always on the back of his mind (see #Trump #MagaHat) and that is important and matters to him. The rest, including the Presidency are just the parts of #TrumpBrand ($4Bl)
MAGA hat – Google pic.twitter.com/UwvtSVvXyy



Posted bymikenovon Sunday, June 9th, 2019 3:12pm

 mikenov on Twitter

RT @AbboyJorge: #WithoutMeYouWould never stand your ground #magahat pic.twitter.com/vpSJKlSdR3

#WithoutMeYouWould never stand your ground #magahat pic.twitter.com/vpSJKlSdR3



Posted by AbboyJorge on Friday, June 7th, 2019 7:18pm
Retweeted by mikenov on Sunday, June 9th, 2019 3:21pm

2 likes, 1 retweet

Trump accuses Twitter of gagging conservatives, United States News & Top Stories – The Straits Times
Trump accuses Twitter of gagging conservatives, United States News & Top Stories  The Straits TimesWASHINGTON (AFP) – US President Donald Trump took to Twitter once again Sunday (June 9) to accuse the messaging platform of gagging conservative …
“Donald Trump” – Google News: President Donald Trump Tweetstorm – The Sunday Edition – Deadline

Michael Novakhov – SharedNewsLinks℠

Michael Novakhov on Twitter from Michael_Novakhov (4 sites): mikenov on Twitter: 3:02 PM 6/9/2019 – #Review: With all due disrespect for the involved parties, this is the same Russian-Jewish “#КЕГЕБЕШНАЯ #ЖИДОВНЯ” – See also: #RussianJews and #KGB | #FBI trumpandtrumpism.com/2019/06/09/302…

3:02 PM 6/9/2019 – #Review: With all due disrespect for the involved parties, this is the same Russian-Jewish “#КЕГЕБЕШНАЯ #ЖИДОВНЯ” – See also: #RussianJews and #KGB | #FBI trumpandtrumpism.com/2019/06/09/302…


Posted by

mikenov
on Sunday, June 9th, 2019 7:05pm

mikenov on Twitter

Michael Novakhov on Twitter from Michael_Novakhov (4 sites)

Blogs from Michael_Novakhov (21 sites): Michael Novakhov on Twitter from Michael_Novakhov (4 sites): mikenov on Twitter: 3:02 PM 6/9/2019 – #Review: With all due disrespect for the involved parties, this is the same Russian-Jewish “#КЕГЕБЕШНАЯ #ЖИДОВНЯ” – See also: #RussianJews and #KGB | #FBI trumpandtrumpism.com/2019/06/09/302…

3:02 PM 6/9/2019 – #Review: With all due disrespect for the involved parties, this is the same Russian-Jewish “#КЕГЕБЕШНАЯ #ЖИДОВНЯ” – See also: #RussianJews and #KGB | #FBI trumpandtrumpism.com/2019/06/09/302…


Posted by

mikenov
on Sunday, June 9th, 2019 7:05pm

mikenov on Twitter

Michael Novakhov on Twitter from Michael_Novakhov (4 sites)

Blogs from Michael_Novakhov (21 sites)

Michael Novakhov – SharedNewsLinks℠: 2:52 PM 6/9/2019 | Trump and Trumpism – Review Of News And Opinions


Michael_Novakhov
shared this story
from Trump and Trumpism – Review Of News And Opinions.

2:52 PM 6/9/2019

Saved Stories – None
mikenov on Twitter: #KGBJews The #KGBJews #КЕГЕБЕШНАЯЖИДОВНЯ КЕГЕБЕШНАЯ ЖИДОВНЯ – Google Search Michael_Novakhov shared this story . 8:09 AM 6/5/2019 – With all due disrespect for the involved parties, this is the same Russian-Jewish “#КЕГЕБЕШНАЯ #ЖИДОВНЯ” – See also: #RussianJews and #KGB | #FBI pic.twitter.com/YuZZ3FyGVS
mikenov on Twitter: It is not #MAGA (which is just a front claim), it is #MATGA: #MakeTrumpGreatAgain, which is always on the back of his mind (see #Trump #MagaHat) and that is important and matters to him. The rest, including the Presidency are just the parts of #TrumpBrand ($4Bl) MAGA hat – Google pic.twitter.com/UwvtSVvXyy
RT @AbboyJorge: #WithoutMeYouWould never stand your ground #magahat pic.twitter.com/vpSJKlSdR3
Trump accuses Twitter of gagging conservatives, United States News & Top Stories – The Straits Times
“Donald Trump” – Google News: President Donald Trump Tweetstorm – The Sunday Edition – Deadline
Germany Stresses Support for Two-state Solution Ahead of Bahrain Conference
11:19 AM 6/9/2019 – It is not #MAGA (which is just a front claim), it is #MATGA: #MakeTrumpGreatAgain, which is always on the back of his mind
The #TrumpInvestigations #Blog by #MichaelNovakhov – #Review Of #News And #Opinions: 11:19 AM 6/9/2019 – It is not #MAGA (which is just a #front #claim), it is #MATGA: #MakeTrumpGreatAgain, which is #always on the #back of his #mind trumpinvestigations.blogspot.com/2019/06/1119-a…
CNN’s YouTube Videos: Bernie Sanders shares how he feels about trailing Biden
#KGBJews The #KGBJews #КЕГЕБЕШНАЯЖИДОВНЯ КЕГЕБЕШНАЯ ЖИДОВНЯ – Google Search Michael_Novakhov shared this story . 8:09 AM 6/5/2019 – With all due disrespect for the involved parties, this is the same Russian-Jewish “#КЕГЕБЕШНАЯ #ЖИДОВНЯ” – See also: #RussianJews and #KGB | #FBI pic.twitter.com/YuZZ3FyGVS
Mark Penn: If Trump probed Nadler, Schiff the way they conduct investigations on him, he’d be …
#JoelZamel’s name does not even come up in the searchable #MuellerReport, unless it is redacted due to “ongoing investigation” | #IsraeliinterventioninUSelections ‘vastly overwhelms’ anything #Russia has done, claims #NoamChomsky
Russian media repeat false claim on use of force in Donbas – Polygraph
“organized crime and terrorism” – Google News: The road to Ferguson: This 1980 bank robbery changed how American police are armed – Salon
CNN’s YouTube Videos: Fareed: Trump achieved one thing with his bullying behavior
It is not #MAGA (which is just a front claim), it is #MATGA: #MakeTrumpGreatAgain, which is always on the back of his mind (see #Trump #MagaHat) and that is important and matters to him. The rest, including the Presidency are just the parts of #TrumpBrand ($4Bl) MAGA hat – Google pic.twitter.com/UwvtSVvXyy
CNN’s YouTube Videos: Melania Trump critiqued over attire at royal dinner
maga hat back view – Google Search
Carter Page says he consulted State Department, FBI, and CIA for years
The silver lining to Trump’s incompetence – CNN
Melania Trump mostly silent in Europe but certainly seen – CNN
Trump, the “lying press” and the Nazis: Attacking the media has a history – Salon
Trump Says Twitter Should Reinstate All Of The Conservatives It Banned
2020 Democrats embrace a $15 US minimum wage as they target Trump’s economy – CNBC
Trump, the “lying press” and the Nazis: Attacking the media has a history – Salon
Saved Stories – None
mikenov on Twitter: #KGBJews The #KGBJews #КЕГЕБЕШНАЯЖИДОВНЯ КЕГЕБЕШНАЯ ЖИДОВНЯ – Google Search Michael_Novakhov shared this story . 8:09 AM 6/5/2019 – With all due disrespect for the involved parties, this is the same Russian-Jewish “#КЕГЕБЕШНАЯ #ЖИДОВНЯ” – See also: #RussianJews and #KGB | #FBI pic.twitter.com/YuZZ3FyGVS

#KGBJews The #KGBJews

#КЕГЕБЕШНАЯЖИДОВНЯ

КЕГЕБЕШНАЯ ЖИДОВНЯ – Google Search
Michael_Novakhov shared this story .
8:09 AM 6/5/2019 – With all due disrespect for the involved parties, this is the same Russian-Jewish “#КЕГЕБЕШНАЯ #ЖИДОВНЯ” – See also: #RussianJews and #KGB | #FBI pic.twitter.com/YuZZ3FyGVS



Posted by mikenov on Sunday, June 9th, 2019 2:39pm

 mikenov on Twitter

mikenov on Twitter: It is not #MAGA (which is just a front claim), it is #MATGA: #MakeTrumpGreatAgain, which is always on the back of his mind (see #Trump #MagaHat) and that is important and matters to him. The rest, including the Presidency are just the parts of #TrumpBrand ($4Bl) MAGA hat – Google pic.twitter.com/UwvtSVvXyy

It is not #MAGA (which is just a front claim), it is #MATGA: #MakeTrumpGreatAgain, which is always on the back of his mind (see #Trump #MagaHat) and that is important and matters to him. The rest, including the Presidency are just the parts of #TrumpBrand ($4Bl)
MAGA hat – Google pic.twitter.com/UwvtSVvXyy



Posted bymikenovon Sunday, June 9th, 2019 3:12pm

 mikenov on Twitter

RT @AbboyJorge: #WithoutMeYouWould never stand your ground #magahat pic.twitter.com/vpSJKlSdR3

#WithoutMeYouWould never stand your ground #magahat pic.twitter.com/vpSJKlSdR3



Posted by AbboyJorge on Friday, June 7th, 2019 7:18pm
Retweeted by mikenov on Sunday, June 9th, 2019 3:21pm

2 likes, 1 retweet

Trump accuses Twitter of gagging conservatives, United States News & Top Stories – The Straits Times

Trump accuses Twitter of gagging conservatives, United States News & Top Stories  The Straits TimesWASHINGTON (AFP) – US President Donald Trump took to Twitter once again Sunday (June 9) to accuse the messaging platform of gagging conservative …
“Donald Trump” – Google News: President Donald Trump Tweetstorm – The Sunday Edition – Deadline

President Donald Trump Tweetstorm – The Sunday Edition  DeadlinePresident Donald Trump takes on his foes and praises his friends in his weekend address via Twitter.

 “Donald Trump” – Google News

Germany Stresses Support for Two-state Solution Ahead of Bahrain Conference

Trump’s advisor and son-in-law, Jared Kushner, will soon present a peace plan for the deadlocked conflict between Israel and the Palestinians.
11:19 AM 6/9/2019 – It is not #MAGA (which is just a front claim), it is #MATGA: #MakeTrumpGreatAgain, which is always on the back of his mind

It is not  (which is just a front claim), it is , which is always on the back of his mind (see  ) and that is important and matters to him. The rest, including the Presidency are just the parts of the  ($4Bl) See: MAGA hat – Google

After six bankruptcies, 

the idea and the emotional need for Denial, Reversal, and Redemption 

became deeply ingrained into his soul. He is a “Survivor”, just like his bros from the Mob, and it is more than just a style. 
M.N.
6.9.19

Image result for maga hat back view

Bloomberg Markets

✔@markets

Trump unleashed animal spirits—and then he crushed themhttps://bloom.bg/2I4WktZ 

Trump Unleashed Animal Spirits and Then He Crushed Them

If there was one thing investors thought they knew about Donald Trump, it was that he was on their side. He was the president who was going to reflate the economy, unleash animal spirits and drive up…

bloomberg.com

See Bloomberg Markets’s other Tweets

The #TrumpInvestigations #Blog by #MichaelNovakhov – #Review Of #News And #Opinions: 11:19 AM 6/9/2019 – It is not #MAGA (which is just a #front #claim), it is #MATGA: #MakeTrumpGreatAgain, which is #always on the #back of his #mind trumpinvestigations.blogspot.com/2019/06/1119-a…

The #TrumpInvestigations #Blog by #MichaelNovakhov – #Review Of #News And #Opinions: 11:19 AM 6/9/2019 – It is not #MAGA (which is just a #front #claim), it is #MATGA: #MakeTrumpGreatAgain, which is #always on the #back of his #mind
trumpinvestigations.blogspot.com/2019/06/1119-a…

Michael Novakhov – SharedNewsLinks℠

Michael Novakhov on Twitter from Michael_Novakhov (4 sites): mikenov on Twitter: The #TrumpInvestigations #Blog by #MichaelNovakhov – #Review Of #News And #Opinions: 11:19 AM 6/9/2019 – It is not #MAGA (which is just a #front #claim), it is #MATGA: #MakeTrumpGreatAgain, which is #always on the #back of his #mind trumpinvestigations.blogspot.com/2019/06/1119-a…

The #TrumpInvestigations #Blog by #MichaelNovakhov – #Review Of #News And #Opinions: 11:19 AM 6/9/2019 – It is not #MAGA (which is just a #front #claim), it is #MATGA: #MakeTrumpGreatAgain, which is #always on the #back of his #mind
trumpinvestigations.blogspot.com/2019/06/1119-a…


Posted by

mikenov
on Sunday, June 9th, 2019 3:43pm

mikenov on Twitter

Michael Novakhov on Twitter from Michael_Novakhov (4 sites)

Blogs from Michael_Novakhov (21 sites): Michael Novakhov on Twitter from Michael_Novakhov (4 sites): mikenov on Twitter: The #TrumpInvestigations #Blog by #MichaelNovakhov – #Review Of #News And #Opinions: 11:19 AM 6/9/2019 – It is not #MAGA (which is just a #front #claim), it is #MATGA: #MakeTrumpGreatAgain, which is #always on the #back of his #mind trumpinvestigations.blogspot.com/2019/06/1119-a…

The #TrumpInvestigations #Blog by #MichaelNovakhov – #Review Of #News And #Opinions: 11:19 AM 6/9/2019 – It is not #MAGA (which is just a #front #claim), it is #MATGA: #MakeTrumpGreatAgain, which is #always on the #back of his #mind
trumpinvestigations.blogspot.com/2019/06/1119-a…


Posted by

mikenov
on Sunday, June 9th, 2019 3:43pm

mikenov on Twitter

Michael Novakhov on Twitter from Michael_Novakhov (4 sites)

Blogs from Michael_Novakhov (21 sites)

Michael Novakhov – SharedNewsLinks℠: 11:19 AM 6/9/2019 – It is not #MAGA (which is just a front claim), it is #MATGA: #MakeTrumpGreatAgain, which is always on the back of his mind


Michael_Novakhov
shared this story
from The Trump Investigations Blog by Michael Novakhov – Review Of News And Opinions.

It is not (which is just a front claim), it is : , which is always on the back of his mind (see ) and that is important and matters to him. The rest, including the Presidency are just the parts of the ($4Bl)
See: MAGA hat – Google



After six bankruptcies,


the idea and the emotional need for Denial, Reversal, and Redemption


became deeply ingrained into his soul. He is a “Survivor”, just like his bros from the Mob, and it is more than just a style.
M.N.
6.9.19


Image result for maga hat back view

Michael Novakhov – SharedNewsLinks℠

Blogs from Michael_Novakhov (21 sites): The Trump Investigations Blog by Michael Novakhov – Review Of News And Opinions: 11:19 AM 6/9/2019 – It is not #MAGA (which is just a front claim), it is #MATGA: #MakeTrumpGreatAgain, which is always on the back of his mind

It is not (which is just a front claim), it is : , which is always on the back of his mind (see ) and that is important and matters to him. The rest, including the Presidency are just the parts of the ($4Bl) See: MAGA hat – Google

After six bankruptcies,

the idea and the emotional need for Denial, Reversal, and Redemption

became deeply ingrained into his soul. He is a “Survivor”, just like his bros from the Mob, and it is more than just a style.
M.N.
6.9.19

Image result for maga hat back view

The Trump Investigations Blog by Michael Novakhov – Review Of News And Opinions

Blogs from Michael_Novakhov (21 sites)